food and health

2016 - WHO

Report of the commission on ending childhood obesity

The ECHO report proposes a range of recommendations for governments aimed at reversing the rising trend of children aged under 5 years becoming overweight and obese.

2016 - Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

Interventions for the Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults

Successful treatment of overweight and obesity in adults requires adoption and maintenance of lifestyle behaviors contributing to both dietary intake and physical activity. These behaviors are influenced by many factors; therefore, interventions on more than one level of the socioecological model and addressing several key factors in each level may be more successful than interventions targeting any one level and factor alone.

2015 - MIUR

Linee guida per l'educazione alimentare

Un prontuario che si innesta sul filone aperto dall’appena concluso EXPO di Milano, la manifestazione mondiale che aveva per motto appunto “Nutrire il pianeta”, le linee guida stilate dal Miur sono un incentivo e un riferimento alle scuole per avviare percorsi informativi e formativi dedicati al cibo, alla cultura alimentare e ai corretti stili di vita.'Educazione_Alimentare_2015.pdf

2015 - Gaetano Maria Fara

Nutrition between sustainability and quality

This lecture describes the complex interrelations existing between human nutrition, quality of aliments, their safety and the sustainability of the feeding habits adopted by the different cultures in the World.

2015 - WHO

Sugars intake for adults and children

This guideline provides updated global, evidence-informed recommendations on the intake of free sugars to reduce the risk of NCDs in adults and children, with a particular focus on the prevention and control of unhealthy weight gain and dental caries.

2015 - WHO

Obesity and overweight, Fact sheet N°311 Updated January 2015

The most recent WHO global estimates on overweight and obesity.

2015 - USDA

The 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for Americans (eighth edition)

The Dietary Guidelines is designed for professionals to help all individuals ages 2 years and older and their families consume a healthy, nutritionally adequate diet. The information is also used in developing Federal food, nutrition, and health policies and programs.

2015 - Christopher J L Murray et al

Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition. The Lancet, Volume 386, No. 10009

The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 brings together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time.


International Agency for Research on Cancer (2015). IARC Monographs evaluate consumption of red meat and processed meat.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, has evaluated the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat.

2014 - WHO

Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health

Unhealthy diets and physical inactivity are major risk factors for chronic diseases. Reports of international and national experts and reviews of the current scientific evidence recommend goals for nutrient intake in order to prevent chronic diseases.

2014 - David L. Katz

Diet and Diabetes: Lines and Dots. J. Nutr. April 1, 2014 vol. 144 no. 4 567S-570S

Diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, is increasingly prevalent around the world. On its current trajectory, the increasing incidence of diabetes has the potential to ravage both public health and economies. There has, however, been evidence for decades that lifestyle has enormous potential to prevent chronic disease, diabetes included. Studies suggest that the combination of tobacco avoidance, routine physical activity, optimal dietary pattern, and weight control could eliminate as much as 80% of all chronic disease, and 90% of cases of diabetes specifically.

2013 - PREDIMED Investigation

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet

Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk.

2013 - WHO

Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020

WHO Global NCD Action Plan 2013-2020 follows on from commitments made by Heads of State and Government in the United Nations Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of NCDs, recognizing the primary role and responsibility of Governments in responding to the challenge of NCDs and the important role of international cooperation to support national efforts.

2012 - WHO

A Framework for Implementing the Set of Recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children

The main purpose of the recommendations was to guide efforts by Member States in designing new policies, or strengthening existing policies, on food marketing communications to children in order to reduce the impact of marketing foods high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, free sugars, or salt.

2010 - WHO

Global recommendations on physical activity for health

WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health" with the overall aim of providing national and regional level policy makers with guidance on the dose-response relationship between the frequency, duration, intensity, type and total amount of physical activity needed for the prevention of NCDs.

2010 - OECD

Obesity and the economics of prevention. Fit not fat

This book examines the scale and characteristics of the obesity epidemic, the respective roles and influence of market forces and governments, and the impact of interventions.

2007 - World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research

Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective

The most comprehensive report on diet and cancer ever completed. Over 7,000 scientific studies were deemed relevant and met the report’s rigorous criteria.

2007 - Anthony J McMichael, John W Powles, Colin D Butler, Ricardo Uauy

Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health Series, Lancet 2007; 370: 1253–63

Food provides energy and nutrients, but its acquisition requires energy expenditure. In post-hunter-gatherer societies, extra-somatic energy has greatly expanded and intensified the catching, gathering, and production of food. Modern relations between energy, food, and health are very complex, raising serious, high-level policy challenges.

2004 - T. Lobstein, L. Baur and R. Uauy

Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obesity Reviews, volume 5, Issue Supplement s1, pages 4–85

Ten per cent of the world's school-aged children are estimated to be carrying excess body fat, with an increased risk for developing chronic disease. Of these overweight children, a quarter are obese, with a significant likelihood of some having multiple risk factors for type 2 diabetes, heart disease and a variety of other co-morbidities before or during early adulthood. The prevalence of overweight is dramatically higher in economically developed regions, but is rising significantly in most parts of the world.

2001 - Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation

Human energy requirements

Assessing the calorie and nutrient requirements of human beings is one of the most important and central mandates of the Food and Agriculture Organization the United Nations. The primary purpose of the expert meetings on nutrient requirements is to give advice on scientific issues related to food energy and nutrient requirements and to formulate recommendations for action.

Harvard School of Public Health

Healthy Eating Plate & Healthy Eating Pyramid

The Healthy Eating Plate and the Healthy Eating Pyramid, created by nutrition experts at Harvard School of Public Health and editors at Harvard Health Publications, was designed to address deficiencies in the USDA’s MyPlate. The Healthy Eating Plate provides detailed guidance, in a simple format, to help people make the best eating choices.

The Seven Countries Study Website

The Seven Countries Study is the first major study to investigate diet and lifestyle along with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, across contrasting countries and cultures and over an extended period of time. This website seeks to display and explain the background, concepts, methods, and results of the Seven Countries Study, and is directed particularly to students and professionals in medicine and public health but also is accessible to all readers interested in prevention of these diseases and in healthy ageing.

Framingham Heart Study

A project of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and Boston University

In 1948, FHS scientists and participants embarked on an ambitious project to identify risk factors for heart disease. Today, the study remains a world-class epicenter for cutting-edge heart, brain, bone, and sleep research. Ongoing nutrition research explores relationship between diet, nutritional status, and the development of chronic diseases.


Health topics: Nutrition

Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity.

Oldways: Health through Heritage

Oldways guides people to good health through heritage, using practical and positive programs grounded in science tradition and real foods.

Sara Farnetti

Specialist in internal medicine. Ph.D. in pathophysiology of metabolism and nutrition, expert in functional nutrition medicine.

Camillo Ricordi

Camillo Ricordi, M.D. is the Stacy Joy Goodman Professor of Surgery, Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, and Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Miami (UM), Florida, where he serves as Director of the Diabetes Research Institute (DRI; and the Cell Transplant Program.

Gabriele Riccardi

Doctor and nutritionist, Gabriele Riccardi is Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases at the University of Naples Federico II.

Aviva Must

Aviva Must PhD is the Morton A. Madoff Professor of Public Health and chair of the Department of Public Health and Community Medicine at Tufts School of Medicine. Dr. Must is a nutritional epidemiologist who has worked in population-based obesity research since 1988.

2017 - Institute of Economic Affairs

CHEAP AS CHIPS - Is a healthy diet affordable?

It is widely believed that healthy eating is relatively expensive whereas ‘junk food’ is relatively cheap. This has led to an assumption that poor diets and obesity are directly caused by economic deprivation.

2016 - United European Gastroenterology (UEG)

Paediatric Digestive Health Across Europe. Early Nutrition, Liver Disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

This comprehensive review of paediatric gastroenterology outlines initiatives and strategies that are in place across Europe but it also highlights many areas of concern that require urgent action and change for the benefit of paediatric patients.
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